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HIST 102 - History of the United States Since 1865 - Van Valkenburg

This guide will help you plan and complete your research paper for Ms. Van Valkenburg's class.


Use NoodleTools to help you create your citations.

It's easy; it's a form you fill out with the information about your source; it helps you catch mistakes.

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NoodleTools Help:

Cite Successfully

To cite sources successfully, it's crucial you have a clear understanding of:

  1. The TYPE of source you're using (magazine article vs. book vs. reference book article)
  2. The PLACE where you found that source (in print at the library vs. online via a database vs. online via a Web site). 
  3. The source's full "bibliographic information" (authors/editors, title, edition, publisher, pages, etc.)

The citation style you use will affect your paper in three places:

  • The general format of the paper. This includes margins, font, page numbers, line spacing, titles, headings, etc.
  • The bibliography. The bibliography is the cumulative list of all sources used in your research. In MLA, this is called the Works Cited list; in APA it's called References, and in Chicago it's called Reference List. 
  • In-text citation. Citing sources within the body of your paper let's your reader know you are incorporating someone else's words/research/ideas.

MLA Style

Created by the Modern Language Association, MLA is most often used by the Humanities, which includes languages, literature, philosophy, visual & performing arts.

Chicago Style

What You Need to Know About Chicago Style:

Overview: The Chicago Manual of Style is a comprehensive reference for authors, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers in any field, though most often used in the humanities. Typically, there are two forms of Chicago Style: Notes and Bibliography style (NB) and the Author-Date References style (AD). The NB style uses endnotes/footnotes and usually a bibliography, and it is preferred by many writers in literature, history, and the arts. The AD style uses parenthetical author-date references and a corresponding reference list (usually titled “References” or “Works Cited”), and it is preferred by publications in the sciences and social sciences. To determine which form to use, ask your teacher.

Footnotes/endnotes: Footnotes and endnotes both follow the same citation guidelines. They are indicated in the text by a superscript number (like this: 1 ). Most college papers that require Chicago Style will use footnotes; articles submitted for publication most likely will use endnotes. If your bibliography contains all works cited in the notes, the notes need not duplicate the source information in full because readers can consult the bibliography for complete details. In works with no bibliography or only a selected list, full details must be given in a note at the first mention of any work cited; subsequent citations need only include a short form (see 14.19).

  • The basic structure of a note includes the Author, Title, and facts of publication.
  • When there is no publication date, use n.d.
  • Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page in a smaller font than the main text (usually 10-point).
  • Endnotes appear at the end of your paper or the end of a chapter in the same size font that you are using for your main text.
  • The first line of all footnotes and endnotes is indented; each footnote or endnote is single-spaced.
  • Footnotes and endnotes are numbered and correspond to superscript note reference numbers within your text.

Bibliography: The bibliography section includes much of the same information as the footnotes. Items appear in alphabetical order by author's last name, and the second and subsequent lines are indented. Unless your instructor tells you otherwise, you should include a bibliography.

In-Text Citations: Most often, footnotes/endnotes are used in Chicago Style. However, in the author-date system, in-text citations are used, followed by a reference page. For in-text citations, provide the author’s last name, the date of publication, and the page number if you refer to a passage in a book or article (see 15.5).

References: The reference section includes much of the same information as in-text citations, with the addition of publication information. Items appear in alphabetical order by author's last name, and the second and subsequent lines are indented.

Here's what you need to know to complete your paper in Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) format.