"...within the criminal justice system [institutional racism] refers to racially differentiated outcomes of cases unrelated to criminal culpability, prior record, or other race neutral factors (Walker et al., 2007, 19). As one of a number of forms of racism, institutional racism can be distinguished from individual racism by the manner in which it occurs. It is an outcome of institutional policies, procedures, and statutes rather than of racially biased individual decisions" (Reitzel, 2014, 295).
Reitzel, J. D. (2014). Institutional Racism. In D. D. Jones-Brown, B. D. Frazier, & M. Brooks (Eds.), African Americans and Criminal Justice: An Encyclopedia (pp. 295-301). Greenwood. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX6104100071/GVRL?u=modestojc_main&sid=GVRL&xid=c0e54352