When you write a research paper, you use information and facts from a variety of resources to support your own ideas or to help you develop new ones. Books, articles, videos, interviews, and Web sites are some examples of sources you might use.
Citing these sources of information in your work is essential because:
Cite all outside sources you use in your research paper! Citing is required for sources you quote word-for-word, for sources you paraphrase (rewrite using your own words), and for sources from which you summarize ideas within your work.
Where to Cite:
You need to cite your sources in two places:
Citing Within the Text of Your Paper:
Direct Quote Example
The quote below appears exactly as it does in Joanna Santa Barbara's article on child-rearing in the Encyclopedia of Violence Peace and Conflict.
“Adjusted data from seven U.S. surveys between 1968 and 1994 show a decline in approval of disciplinary spanking from 94% to 68%, or 26 percentage points in 26 years” (Santa Barbara 243).
Tip: Use direct quotations selectively. In fact, the MLA Handbook advises you to quote only those words, phrases, lines, and passages that are particularly interesting, vivid, unusual, or apt."
This sentence takes the information above and puts it into the author’s own words.
Studies show that Americans are becoming more critical of the concept of spanking children. Between 1968 and 1994 the so-called “approval rating” of spanking children dropped from 94% to 68% (Santa Barbara 243).
The sentence below distills the main idea of the original information.
Studies have shown that Americans just don't approve of spanking like they used to (Santa Barbara 243).
It's important to make sure you collect all the information you need to cite a source as you gather your information so that you won't need to look it up again, so:
Take clear, accurate notes about where you found specific ideas
Write down the complete citation information for each book, article, etc. you use as you go along
Use quotation marks when directly stating another person's words
Always credit original authors for their information and ideas
Whenever you use a citation style (ANY citation style!) you will be governed by that style in three ways:
Accuracy & Precision:
Citation styles present researchers with a set of strict rules....not vague guidelines. Accuracy and precision are vital to the citation process. Always check your work carefully to ensure you've followed all conventions, including font styles, capitalization, punctuation, alphabetization, and format concerns.